E-Government as the Breakthrough to Enhance Government Performance and Services

  • Best Practice No 4
  • Thematic Area 2: Institutional Governance
  • Country of Origin: Indonesia
  • Name of Local Government/Municipality: Yogyakarta
  • Type of Local Government: Municipality
  • Replicated by: Tra Vinh City, Vietnam
  • Replicated by: Songkla City, Thailand

Short Version

Summary

The Yogyakarta City government has developed a management system that makes use of information and communications technology (ICT) for a more organized, efficient, and effective delivery of services. The Yogyakarta City Government formulated the following objectives when designing and implementing the E-Government Best Practices:

  • Utilizing technology to address government administration transparency;
  • Increasing public participation throughout all stages of government’s development activities, from planning, implementation to evaluation;
  • Enhancing government’s performance in carrying out public service duties.

Activities included amongst others:

  • Basic information technology training courses and awareness campaign for Yogyakarta City government officers;
  • Establishment of Technology and Information Telemathics Office (TIT) as an umbrella institution to oversee E-Government implementations by other departments/offices;
  • Activation of the website www.jogjakota.go.id to engage the public in interactive communications to improve Yogyakarta public services and download information on taxations, permits, banking, and other facilities;
  • Online recruitment for Yogyakarta’s civil servants;
  • Online procurement systems for all governments’ departments/offices;
  • Implementation of online learning course for junior and senior high school students in Yogyakarta.

The adoption of an E-Government system has resulted in:

  • Improved quality of services delivered by government, such as transparency in licensing and budgeting, and the city procurement system;
  • Significant reduction in the total administrative and operations costs of the government,
  • Increased transparency, control, and accountability in the government’s organization;
  • Improved investment appeal of the city.

The budget for the Yogyakarta City E-Government program and the responsible Telemathics and Information Technology (TIT) Office fully originates from the local budget, with an annual increase of 1%.

Background and Objectives

In 2002, Yogyakarta developed the Regional Management Information System (SIMDA), which was implemented by the Archive and Electronic Data Processing Office (KAPDE). One year later, motivated by the demand to provide rapid, appropriate, and transparent services, Mayor Herry Zudianto considered it necessary to develop the SIMDA into an E-Government system. The effort had the support of ICT-related units (such as the KAPDE and the Regional Information Board), structural institutions (such as the licensing agency, tourism, etc.), and regional non-structural institutions (such as the Procurement Service Unit and Information and Telematic Technology Section). The city government of Yogyakarta partnered with various institutions and the private sector in developing the E-Government system. It cooperated with the MIPA Faculty at the Gajah Mada University (UGM) in surveying every government agency to draw up the SWOT analysis. The city government also obtained technical assistance from the People’s Economy Empowerment Study Centre (PKPEK), and cooperated with the Information and Communication Technology Service Centre (PPTIK) of UGM and the private sector (Gamatekno and Jogjamedianet) in the procurement of infrastructure.

Yogyakarta City is the capital of Yogyakarta Province. Classified as a special region, the Yogyakarta Province enjoys special rights in regional management--for example, the governor of the Yogyakarta Special Region and his deputy are not appointed the same way as the other regional heads. The governor and deputy governor are “attached” to the sultanate, while the mayor and deputy mayor are bound by the provisions governing all regional heads in Indonesia.

Yogyakarta City consists of 14 districts covering an area of 32.5 km2. It has a total population of 522,568. Yogyakarta is known as the education city. It is also considered one of the showcases of Javanese culture, with an existing sultanate until now. The local government has 7,652 employees and has an Annual Local Budget (APBD) of around 847 billion IDR for 2010.

A.   Innovative Elements

The Yogyakarta City government has developed a management system that makes use of information and communications technology (ICT) for a more organized, efficient, and effective delivery of services.

The E-Government system brought about the following:

  • Unification, integration, and simplification of existing databases to develop a baseline for the e-Government system.
  • Changes in the method and channel for providing and sharing service information, both internally or externally.  
  • Improvement of applications used in the internal and public service operations.
  • Organizational adjustments in consideration of the available technology.
  • Paradigm shift, from the manual system to the digital system, among employees of the Yogyakarta City government, and the change of mindset on the relationship between the government and the community.

The adoption of an E-Government system has resulted in, among others, the following:

  • Improved quality of services delivered by government to its clients.
  • Significant reduction in the total administrative and operations costs of the government.
  • Increased transparency, control, and accountability in the government’s organization.
  • Improved investment appeal of the city.

Specifically, these results were achieved through the following services:

a.   Government Internal Recruitment and Procurement Sector

The recruitment process for civil servants and procurement activities for government departments are now conducted on-line, hence reducing the potential of ‘hidden cost’ and improve transparency for the public.

b.    Community Interactive Service Sector

  • Website http://www.jogjakota.go.id
  • Establishment of the Information and Complaints Service Unit (UPIK) at the Public Relation and Information Office to manage information.
  • SMS to number 2740 and 08122780001
  • Email to upik@jogjakota.go.id
  • Telephone/fax to number 0274-555242 and 0274-555241
  • UPIK Website: http://www.upik.jogjakota.go.id
  • Directly visit the Regional Information Board, Timoho City Hall Complex, Jl. Kenari No. 56, Yogyakarta.
  • Requests for information, suggestions, and complaints sent by members of the community to the SMS hotline 2740 are directly followed up with the concerned government agencies. The status or progress of the matter being followed up can be routinely monitored and evaluated, having been inputted into the government agencies’ activity program.
  • Call centre 0274-290274 answers calls regarding services, procedures, requirements, and licensing costs.
  • SMS Mobile Jogja 2740 provides several services, which can be accessed using corresponding keywords—for example: tourism events, Earthquake Information Service, etc.
  • Computerization of the various licensing and civil registration services so they can be integrated in one location. The on-line system also improves efficiency (less days to complete) and transparency (exact cost for each service is displayed online).
  • Licensing and Civil Registration Service Sector.
  • People’s Online Forum through the RESIDENTS and POLLS columns on the website. The two columns engage the public to voice their concerns or inputs to the government via SMS and join the polling for emerging, important issues about the city.
  • Online-Learning System (KBS Online) for junior secondary and tertiary students where they could submit any questions on subjects of their choice and on-line teachers will assist them to find out solutions. 
  • Different agencies and units are interconnected so they are able to share with other agencies/units the information, suggestions, and complaints they receive. Problems with the following services or facilities are handled by specific sites

The E-Government operations in Yogyakarta continue to empower the community and local government to respond to various problems appropriately and precisely. On July 25, 2008, Mayor Herry Zudianto inaugurated the Electronic Goods Procurement Service. In 2009, the Procurement Service Unit was also established.  The city government continues organizational changes to keep up with the requirements of ICT integration into government management. For example, the management of the ICT infrastructure is now under the head of the TIT office and no longer under a separate board.

B.   Involvement and Activities

Yogyakarta Mayor, Herry Zudianto, is the main actor of E-Government implementation in the City of Yogyakarta. The establishment of Technology Information and Telemathics Office, which oversees coordination with respective regional working units (SKPD) is also instrumental to E-government implementation. The TIT office is responsible for the aspects of hardware, software, network and application and is authorized to design internal applications and sub-domains. There are four phases of E-Government implementation:

1.  Preparation Phase

The preparation phase covers the establishment of the information site at each institution, preparation of human resources, setting up of means for easy access to the site, and the internal and public testing of the information site and the website.

2.  Maturation Phase

This covers the unification of all information dissemination applications that have been developed.

There are three main activities in this phase:

  • Composition of the integrated database and the supporting site, ensuring that the interests of each agency or unit as well as the requirements of data sharing with other units are accommodated.  
  • Improving the awareness of the government apparatus in handling the data and information. This activity is expected to change the work culture to adapt to the use of information and communication technology.
  • Adoption of more appropriate technology. One of the adjustments is the application of the network and information system.

3.  Stabilization Phase

  • Adjustments in the standard operating procedures, as ICT is now being by the workforce in the performance of official duties, both internally and in providing services.
  • Establishment of a website for public services

4.  Utilization Phase

The development of facilities provided by the government, including access to information, education, and library; and applications that can be widely utilized, like G2G (Government to Government), G2B (Government to Business), and G2C (Government to Community).

C.  Sustainability and Replication  

The sustainability of the E-Government depends heavily on the vision and commitment of the local government to maintain and continue developing the program. The commitment of all local government departments is in form of fund support, adjustment of the organizational structure, and the development of human resources to work well with the program. Yogyakarta  City has drawn up a four-phase master plan for the E-Government to serve as technical instrument in the guiding the city government’s vision for the period 2007-2026.

A number of related policies have also been set and promulgated through various regional regulations and mayor decrees. The E-Government master plan of Yogyakarta and a number of those regional regulations are an effective strategy in making the program sustainable. The use of ICT has become the norm anywhere in the world. The extent of ICT application in other areas may be adjusted according to their capacity and potentials. This program can be implemented in phases and over several years so as not to financially burden the local government too much.

The keys to implementing this best practice are a strong and visionary leadership, cost-effective approach, and human resources with improved capacities and continuous learning program.